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The BITSAVERS.ORG Documents Library: Intel

ntel Corporation is an American multinational semiconductor chip maker corporation headquartered in Santa Clara, California. Intel is the world's largest and highest valued semiconductor chip maker, based on revenue. It is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers. Intel Corporation, founded on July 18, 1968, is a portmanteau of Integrated Electronics (the fact that "intel" is the term for intelligence information was also quite suitable). Intel also makes motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphic chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing. Founded by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore and widely associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove, Intel combines advanced chip design capability with a leading-edge manufacturing capability. Though Intel was originally known primarily to engineers and technologists, its "Intel Inside" advertising campaign of the 1990s made it and its Pentium processor household names.

Intel was an early developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips, and this represented the majority of its business until 1981. Although Intel created the world's first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, it was not until the success of the personal computer (PC) that this became its primary business. During the 1990s, Intel invested heavily in new microprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry. During this period Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs, and was known for aggressive and sometimes illegal tactics in defense of its market position, particularly against Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), as well as a struggle with Microsoft for control over the direction of the PC industry. The 2011 rankings of the world's 100 most valuable brands published by Millward Brown Optimor showed the company's brand value at number 58 and in 2012 at number 49.

Intel was originally founded in Mountain View, California in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore (of "Moore's Law" fame, a chemist and physicist), Robert Noyce (a physicist and co-inventor of the integrated circuit), and Arthur Rock (investor and venture capitalist). Moore and Noyce came from Fairchild Semiconductor and were Intel's first two employees. Rock was not an employee, but he was an investor and Chairman of the Board. The total initial investment in Intel was $2.5 million convertible debentures and $10,000 from Rock. Just 2 years later, Intel completed their initial public offering (IPO), raising $6.8 million ($23.50 per share). Intel's third employee was Andy Grove, a chemical engineer, who later ran the company through much of the 1980s and the high-growth 1990s.

Moore and Noyce initially wanted to name the company "Moore Noyce". The name, however, was a partial homophone for "more noise" – an ill-suited name for an electronics company, since noise in electronics is usually very undesirable and typically associated with bad interference. Instead they used the name NM Electronics for almost a year, before deciding to call their company Integrated Electronics or "Intel" for short. Since "Intel" was already trademarked by the hotel chain Intelco, they had to buy the rights for the name.

At its founding, Intel was distinguished by its ability to make semiconductors. Its first product, in 1969, was the 3101 Schottky TTL bipolar 64-bit static random-access memory (SRAM), which was nearly twice as fast as earlier Schottky diode implementations by Fairchild and the Electrotechnical Laboratory in Tsukuba, Japan. That same year Intel also produced the 3301 Schottky bipolar 1024-bit read-only memory (ROM)[21] and the first commercial metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) silicon gate SRAM chip, the 256-bit 1101. Intel's business grew during the 1970s as it expanded and improved its manufacturing processes and produced a wider range of products, still dominated by various memory devices.

While Intel created the first commercially available microprocessor (Intel 4004) in 1971 and one of the first microcomputers in 1972, by the early 1980s its business was dominated by dynamic random-access memory chips. However, increased competition from Japanese semiconductor manufacturers had, by 1983, dramatically reduced the profitability of this market, and the sudden success of the IBM personal computer convinced then-CEO Andrew Grove to shift the company's focus to microprocessors, and to change fundamental aspects of that business model.

By the end of the 1980s this decision had proven successful. Buoyed by its fortuitous position as microprocessor supplier to IBM and IBM's competitors within the rapidly growing personal computer market, Intel embarked on a 10-year period of unprecedented growth as the primary (and most profitable) hardware supplier to the PC industry. By launching its Intel Inside marketing campaign in 1991, Intel was able to associate brand loyalty with consumer selection, so that by the end of the 1990s, its line of Pentium processors had become a household name.

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TOPIC
data 181
address 118
memory 115
interrupt 99
system 99
command 89
intel 81
instruction 72
program 70
bus 69
file 68
isbc 67
output 63
byte 58
input 57
operating system 55
mode 53
data bus 50
processor 49
segment 44
interface 43
board 39
ram 38
port 36
error 34
intel corporation 33
control word 31
disk 30
mov 29
power supply 29
system call 29
assembly language 28
bus cycle 28
device 28
reference manual 28
task 28
instruction set 27
interrupt request 27
system calls 27
multibus 26
cycle 25
irmx 25
signal 25
baud rate 24
disk drive 24
commands 23
macro 23
control 22
cpu 22
high voltage 22
bus master 21
chip select 21
symbol parameter 21
module 20
user 20
configuration 19
development system 19
diskette 19
dma 19
drive 19
iapx 19
intellec series 19
low voltage 19
privilege level 19
isbx 18
local bus 18
operand 18
software 18
status 18
status register 18
declare 17
parameter 17
pin 17
procedure 17
protected mode 17
single board 17
cache 16
connector 16
error messages 16
files 16
intellec 16
isbx bus 16
memory location 16
multimodule board 16
operating 16
program counter 16
series iii 16
stack 16
code 15
floating point 15
register pair 15
series 15
system bus 15
vcc 15
assembler 14
call 14
compiler 14
controller 14
display 14
guide 14
hold time 14
test 14
control register 13
human interface 13
microprocessor 13
object 13
programming 13
variable 13
xenix 13
block 12
condition codes 12
data memory 12
directory 12
instructions 12
multibus interface 12
object module 12
real address 12
address mode 11
condition code 11
data transfer 11
flexible disk 11
hardware reference 11
host 11
installation 11
ioc 11
manual 11
paper tape 11
power 11
access time 10
accumulator 10
address space 10
buffer 10
character 10
floppy disk 10
integer 10
machine cycle 10
microcomputer development 10
program memory 10
rom 10
statement 10
vss 10
access 9
base address 9
bus cycles 9
bus interface 9
chassis 9
data segment 9
figure 9
host isbc 9
jumper 9
main memory 9
mode control 9
mode exceptions 9
multimodule 9
pointer 9
symbol table 9
text 9
voltage 9
write data 9
board computer 8
boundary scan 8
calls 8
channel 8
clk 8
code segment 8
confidence test 8
connection 8
console 8
descriptor 8
descriptor table 8
double density 8
equ equ 8
front panel 8
hardware 8
mode instruction 8
process 8
processor extension 8
prom 8
read data 8
source 8
test conditions 8
token 8
array 7
crt 7
data cache 7
device driver 7
device drivers 7
disk controller 7
drawing 7
exception handler 7
fifo 7
function reference 7
linear address 7
master 7
master pic 7
memory management 7
message 7
mvi 7
processor board 7
ram board 7
LANGUAGE
english 420
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Title
Date Published
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From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8085 :: 9800301C 8080 8085 Assembly Language Programming Manual Nov78
Topics: instruction, program, macro, accumulator, data, operand, flag, mov, assembler, opcode operand,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: insite :: INSITE pgmLibrManVol2 Aug79
Topics: program, mov, subroutine, required, input, output, intel, lxi, ram, registers, program title,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1989 Intel Microprocessor and Peripheral Handbook Vol 1
Topics: bus, data, address, interrupt, cycle, mode, memory, dma, channel, bus cycle, local bus, dma...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1987 Development Tools Handbook
Topics: software, system, program, user, data, intel, file, code, write, module, development system,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1989 OEM Boards and Systems Hanbook
Topics: isbc, system, memory, board, bus, data, interrupt, interface, multibus, intel, single board,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8085 :: 9800451A SDK-85 Users Manual Jul77
Topics: address, mov, display, command, character, mvi, equ, hex, monitor, address field, data field,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: insite :: INSITE pgmLibrManVol1 Aug79
Topics: mov, program, output, mvi, intel, required, equ, input, call, ram, program title, required...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: ISIS II :: 9800301-04 8080 8085 Assembly Language Programming Manual May81
Topics: instruction, program, macro, accumulator, data, operand, mov, flag, assembler, carry flag,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8048 :: 9800255D MCS-48 and UPI-41 Assembly Language Reference Manual Dec78
Topics: assembler, macro, mov, data, accumulator, program, contents, instruction, instructions, opcode,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 80486 :: i486 Processor Programmers Reference Manual 1990
Topics: instruction, segment, address, processor, exceptions, operand, memory, mode, instructions, mode...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 80286 :: 210498-005 80286 and 80287 Programmers Reference Manual 1987
Topics: instruction, segment, interrupt, stack, operand, address, code, task, descriptor, instruction set,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: PLM :: 9800466C PLM-86 Programming Manual for 8080 8085-Based Development Systems Feb83
Topics: procedure, byte, declare, statement, variable, program, expression, programming, array, block,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: MCS80 :: MCS80 85 Users Manual Jan83
Topics: data, memory, instruction, address, cycle, cpu, interrupt, intel, rst, machine cycle, data bus,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8051 :: MCS-51 Users Manual Jan81
Topics: data, output, input, port, program, mov, byte, instruction, address, data memory, instruction set,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: catalog :: 210621-031 Intel Literature Guide Dec88
Topics: guide, manual, reference, sheet, data, isbc, systems, system, hardware, irmx, reference manual,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: MCS80 :: 98-153D MCS-80 Users Manual Oct77
Topics: data, output, input, address, memory, bus, cpu, mode, cycle, data bus, symbol parameter, hold time,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8086 :: 210976-002 iAPX 86, 88, 186 Microprocessors Part I Ver 2.0 Jun 84 NJ7P-S
Topics: mov, segment, program, data, iapx, memory, instruction, interrupt, byte, stack, segment assume,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8048 :: 9800270D MCS-48 Family Users Manual Jul78
Topics: data, input, output, program, port, memory, instruction, mode, address, interrupt, data memory,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8051 :: MCS-51 Users Manual Feb94
Topics: timer, interrupt, mode, external, data, port, hardware, address, byte, dma, hardware description,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8085 :: 9800451B SDK-85 Users Man Feb80
Topics: address, mov, display, command, character, mvi, hex, data, byte, address field, data field, stack...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1989 Microcomputer Programmable Logic Handbook
Topics: output, logic, input, macrocell, device, intel, programmable, design, epld, pin, programmable...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 80486 :: Intel486 DX2 Microprocessor Data Book Jul92
Topics: microprocessor, cache, data, instruction, segment, bus, address, memory, cycle, floating point, bus...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: iAPX386 Apr84
Topics: iapx, intel, memory, telex, suite, segmentation, intei, tel, corp, tei, memory management, physical...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: MemoryDesignHandbook Aug73
Topics: memory, data, output, mos, rom, input, address, ttl, figure, shift, shift register, shift...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8086 :: 9800698A SDK-86 Users Man Apr79
Topics: data, port, address, command, input, output, mode, monitor, control, byte, ooooo ooooo, ooo ooooo,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1978 Intel Component Data Catalog
Topics: data, output, input, address, vcc, memory, cycle, voltage, current, mode, symbol parameter, chip...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1975 Intel Data Catalog
Topics: input, output, data, voltage, memory, current, address, cycle, chip, mos, silicon gate, chip...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1986 Microcommunications Handbook
Topics: data, command, transmit, interrupt, receive, frame, mode, buffer, interface, status, data rate,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: ISIS II :: 121703-003 ASM86 Language Reference Manual Mar85
Topics: codemacro, endm, stack, segment, mov, instruction, byte, dst, mod, operation, endm codemacro,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataSheets :: 486DX Data Sheet Oct92
Topics: microprocessor, cache, data, instruction, bus, address, segment, vss, vcc, floating point,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1985 iAPX 286 Programmers Reference Manual
Topics: instruction, segment, iapx, interrupt, address, stack, operand, data, code, descriptor, instruction...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: busSpec :: Intel ISA Spec2.01 Sep89
Topics: bus, dma, intel, isa, controller, refresh, signal, cycle, specification, isa bus, intel isa, bus...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1985 Development Systems Handbook
Topics: software, system, program, user, intel, module, data, memory, development, commands, development...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1979 Intel Component Data Catalog
Topics: data, output, input, address, vcc, memory, mode, voltage, interrupt, cycle, data bus, symbol...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1996 Networking
Topics: data, intel, frame, address, command, byte, interface, memory, receive, transmit, hold time, setup...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 80386 :: 231746-001 Introduction to the 80386 Apr86
Topics: address, segment, bus, mode, data, instruction, task, virtual, cycle, operating system, bus cycle,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 80386 :: 231732-001 80386 Hardware Reference Manual 1986
Topics: bus, cycle, dram, data, address, pal, memory, interface, clk, cache, bus cycle, local bus, bus...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1981 iAPX 86 88 Users Manual
Topics: bus, data, interrupt, instruction, memory, address, byte, cpu, processor, bytes coding, coding...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: C-160 memDesignHb May77
Topics: data, figure, output, address, memory, device, refresh, cycle, input, power, chip enable, power...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1988 OEM Boards and Systems Handbook
Topics: isbc, system, board, memory, bus, data, interface, interrupt, software, multibus, single board,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1984 Intel Memory Components Handbook
Topics: data, memory, bubble, output, error, refresh, system, address, cycle, command, bubble memory, data...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: Intel Peripheral Components 1994
Topics: data, eisa, pci, command, address, bus, dma, memory, mode, eisa bus, status register, data bus,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8086 :: 210954-002 iAPX 86, 88, 186 Microprocessors Part II Jul 84 NJ7P-S
Topics: segment, stack, data, mov, pointer, interrupt, instruction, ends, memory, segment assume, max...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: ISIS II :: ISIS internals
Topics: declare, call, disk, file, theh, command, byte, error, sihclude, buffer, theh call, hard disk, cold...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: iRMX :: 146194-001 irmxR6Intro
Topics: command, file, system, irmx, volume, files, operating, directory, device, interface, operating...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: MCS8 :: Intellec8 RefManual Jun74
Topics: memory, data, output, processor, input, module, address, instruction, signal, interrupt, central...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1992 Intel 486 Programmers Reference Manual
Topics: instruction, segment, address, processor, exceptions, operand, memory, instructions, mode, mode...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: iSBC :: 143078-001 iSBC 208 Users Manual Oct81
Topics: command, data, fdc, controller, address, signal, drive, isbc, status, host processor, status...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1981 Intel Component Data Catalog
Topics: data, output, input, address, mode, bus, interrupt, command, voltage, symbol parameter, data bus,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1982 Systems Data Catalog
Topics: isbc, system, memory, data, intel, software, user, interrupt, board, program, single board,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: ISIS II :: 121636-002 PLM86 Users Guide Nov81
Topics: procedure, byte, program, declare, compiler, statement, expression, variable, interrupt, guide,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8048 :: 1980 UPI 41A Users Manual
Topics: data, port, interrupt, input, upi, program, output, accumulator, mov, data bus, data memory, status...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1979 iSBC Applications Manual
Topics: isbc, data, declare, system, output, control, interrupt, bus, literally, task, single board, board...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: i960 :: i960 Processors and Related Products Jan95
Topics: vcc, vss, data, processor, bus, pin, figure, intel, input, reset, input setup, vss vss, pin signal,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1990 80C186EB 80C188EB Users Manual
Topics: interrupt, timer, bus, data, unit, mov, control, instruction, mod, chip select, modular core, core...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 80386 :: 230985-003 386DX Microprocessor Programmers Reference Manual 1990
Topics: instruction, segment, address, mode, operand, byte, exceptions, microprocessor, interrupt, mode...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: MCS80 :: 98-153B Intel 8080 Microcomputer Systems Users Manual 197509
Topics: data, output, input, memory, instruction, address, bus, cpu, voltage, data bus, silicon gate, gate...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8051 :: 8051 Microcomputer Preliminary Architectural Specification May80
Topics: data, program, interrupt, external, memory, byte, internal, port, ram, internal data, program...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8086 :: 210200-002 iAPX88 Book 1983
Topics: iapx, data, memory, instruction, segment, interrupt, byte, address, bus, transfers bytes, coding...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: MDS :: 9800132C MDS hwRef Jan79
Topics: data, module, bus, output, interrupt, memory, input, address, dma, prom, data bus, dma module,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: iSBC :: 148437-001 iSBC 80 24A Hardware Reference Manual Nov85
Topics: port, connects, isbc, mode, interrupt, input, output, data, cpu, connects port, control word,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: Intel Multimedia and Supercomputing Processors Jan92
Topics: data, memory, bus, cache, instruction, cycle, address, pin, figure, memory bus, rising edge, cache...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1990 i486 Microprocessor Hardware Reference Manual
Topics: bus, cache, processor, data, memory, cycle, address, cycles, cpu, system, processor bus, bus cycle,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1976 Intel Data Catalog
Topics: output, input, data, voltage, vcc, current, address, memory, chip, cycle, chip select, symbol...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 2920 :: 121529-001 2920 Signal Processing Applications Compiler Users Guide Feb80
Topics: pole, compiler, macro, command, filter, code, poles, commands, frequency, gain, pole pole, signal...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataSheets :: i486 Data Sheet Apr89
Topics: microprocessor, cache, data, segment, address, bus, instruction, interrupt, memory, floating point,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 2920 :: 1980 2920 Analog Signal Processor Design Handbook
Topics: filter, signal, digital, analog, lda, input, output, frequency, filters, intel, intel corp, signal...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: MCS4 :: MCS-4 UsersManual Feb73
Topics: rom, ram, output, program, instruction, data, src, address, input, ram output, rom output, rom...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1982 Intel Component Data Catalog
Topics: data, output, input, bus, address, interrupt, mode, voltage, pin, symbol parameter, high voltage,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataSheets :: 486DX2 Data Sheet Feb92
Topics: microprocessor, cache, data, instruction, segment, bus, address, memory, cycle, floating point, bus...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1989 32-Bit Embedded Controller Handbook
Topics: interrupt, processor, instruction, data, bus, address, dst, registers, dma, interrupt table, dma...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1989 386SX Processor Programmers Reference
Topics: instruction, segment, address, mode, operand, byte, microprocessor, exceptions, interrupt, mode...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: 8051 :: 9800937-02 MCS-51 Macro Assembler Users Guide Sep81
Topics: address, data, macro, accumulator, mov, code, error, instruction, assembler, data address, carry...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: dataBooks :: 1993 Intel Memory Products
Topics: memory, erase, flash, vpp, data, vcc, write, command, device, block, flash memory, status register,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.intel :: iSBC :: 144044-002 iSBC 8614 and 8630 Single Board Computer Hardware Reference Jan85
Topics: isbc, interrupt, board, port, ram, signal, multibus, bus, input, address, dual port, port ram,...